One topic that you will be tested on CCNA exams is routing. Cisco routers support both dynamic and static routing. Dynamic routing uses the so called “Dynamic Routing Protocols” (such as RIP, OSPF, EIGRP etc). Static routing requires the router administrator to manually create a route on the device for a specific destination network. Static routing is not complicated, but it’s an important topic on the CCNA exam and a valuable skill for real-world networking.
To configure a static route you need to know the destination network for which you want to create a route path, the network mask of the destination network, and either the next-hop IP address or the exit interface of your device from which you can reach that destination network. It’s vital to keep that last part in mind – you’re either configuring the IP address of the next-hop router, or the interface on the local router that will serve as the exit interface.
Router(config)#ip route [destination network] [destination mask] [next-hop IP or exit interface]
Destination network for which we need to create a static route: 192.168.1.0 / 24
Destination network mask: 255.255.255.0
Let’s say your local router has a serial0 interface with an IP address of 10.10.10.1/30, and the downstream router that will be the next hop will receive packets on its serial1 interface with an IP address of 10.10.10.2/30. The static route will be for packets destined for the 192.168.1.0/24 network.
Router(config)#ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 10.10.10.2 (next-hop IP address)
Router(config)#ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 serial0 (local exit interface)
Finally, a default static route serves as a gateway of last resort. If there are no matches for a destination in the routing table, the default route will be used. Default routes use all zeroes for both the destination and mask, and again a next-hop IP address or local exit interface can be used.
Router(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.10.10.2 (next-hop IP address)
Router(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 serial0 ( local exit interface)
IP route statements seem simple enough, but the details regarding the next-hop IP address, the local exit interface, default static routes, and the syntax of the command are vital for success on CCNA exam day and in the real world.